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Action Plan

Ministry of Health and Public Welfare, Government of India | 2021

The National Action Plan on Heat Related lllnesses, developed with inputs from various governmental and non-governmental experts, is intended to be used by government and private health care facilities, health departments, and policymakers tasked with strengthening health facilities and emergency response. This document provides guidance to manage severe heat-related illnesses and to report them under National Heat Related
Illness surveillance.

Case Study

Combating the heat island effect and poor air quality with green ventilation corridors

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2014

Stuttgart’s location in a valley basin, its mild climate, low wind speeds, industrial activity and high volume of traffic has made it susceptible to poor air quality. Development on the valley slopes has prevented air from moving through the city, which worsens the air quality and contributes to the urban heat island effect. A Climate Atlas was developed for the Stuttgart region, presenting the distribution of temperature and cold air flows according to the city’s topography and land use. Based on this information, a number of planning and zoning regulations are recommended that also aim to preserve and increase open space in densely built-up areas.

Case Study

Berlin Biotope Area Factor – Implementation of guidelines helping to control temperature and runoff

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2020

In inner city Berlin, plans for the development of new buildings are subjected to the Berlin Landscape Programme, which includes a regulation requiring a proportion of the area to be left as green space: the Biotope Area Factor (BAF) or BFF (Biotop Flächenfaktor). All potential green areas, such as courtyards, roofs and walls are included in the BAF. The regulation is a part of a larger set of documents relating to landscape planning and design as well as species protection. It responds to the need to encourage more green space in densely built-up urban areas.

Climate change is expected to increase and intensify heatwaves and water-related extremes; two impacts that are particularly relevant for the urban context. By encouraging the introduction of more green space, the BAF is an important mechanism to reduce local climate change vulnerability as its measures help to lower the temperatures and improve the runoff management. The implementation of the BAF started in 1994 and is still on-going. A considerable number of new built areas in the inner city centre have implemented this regulation, translating it into green areas.

Case Study

Operation of the Portuguese Contingency Heatwaves Plan

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2015

Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. The elderly are particular vulnerable to extreme heat stress. Being part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal has a mild Mediterranean climate. Climate change projections indicate that the number of days with extreme heat in Portugal will increase with urban areas being more sensitive. If future populations become more urbanized and the number of elderly continues to increase, the issue of heat-related mortality will likely become more severe.

During the 2003 heatwave in Europe, Portugal was one of the few countries that already had an early warning system in place: but only for Lisbon, the capital city. Following the 2003 heatwave, the Portuguese Heatwave Contingency Plan was established and has been in operation every year from May to September. This is a national plan covering the whole continental Portugal. The aim of the current Portuguese Heatwave Contingency Plan is to prevent the adverse health effects of heat stress on the population during periods of elevated temperatures. Daily alerts are key factors to the successful implementation of this plan; they indicate what protection measures must be carried out to protect the population during periods of elevated temperatures.

Case Study

Operation of the Austrian Heat Protection Plan

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2017

Evidence that increasing temperatures leads to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. Especially the 2003 heat wave in Europe raised the awareness of negative impacts of heat stress on human health in Austria. Increased incidence of heat waves leads to an increase in heat stress, especially in urban areas; the intensification of the heat-island effect is to be expected. Following the 2003 heat wave, different Austrian provinces like Styria (2011) and Carinthia (2013) developed heat protection plans, based on recommendations from the World Health Organisation, which recommended to develop strategies, plans and packages of measures in order to protect citizens from heat stress.

These plans provide an information basis for public health services. Based on the experience from the two provinces, an Austrian heat protection plan, led by the Ministry of Health and Woman´s Affairs with involvement of several relevant actors on the national and provincial level was prepared and put in action in 2017. The plan sets out the connection between climate change and health as well as the meteorological baseline information for heat warnings, which is provided by the National Met Service (ZAMG). The information and warnings are directed to the citizen via a sound network of institutions and actors in the health field.

Case Study

Heat Hotline Parasol – Kassel region

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2017

Demographic change and climate change together place great challenges on the society. The life expectancy of the population in Germany rises and so does the share of older people. Besides chronic patients and children, the elderly are especially affected by the effects of the climate change. At the same time more and more people live in single person households (increase from 14.56 million in 2004 to 16.83 million in 2016 in Germany), which can influence their social isolation. How can we reach these people in order to prevent negative impacts during heatwaves? This is where the heat hotline parasol from the city of Kassel (around 200.000 inhabitants) in Germany comes into play. The heat hotline parasol is a free of charge hotline that calls registered citizens and provides information on heat-warnings from the German Weather Service and suggest measures how to best deal with and adapt to higher temperatures and heat. With this hotline special support is provided to citizens, especially elderly and their families, to deal with heat in the urban area of the city of Kassel. The Elderly Committee of the City of Kassel and the Health Department of the Kassel region cooperates in the heat hotline parasol.

Case Study

Social vulnerability to heatwaves – from assessment to implementation of adaptation measures in Košice and Trnava, Slovakia

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2018

High temperatures and heatwaves in the summer pose increasing risks to people living in Slovakian cities. In particular older people and children, those living on top floors in poorly insulated buildings, and those relying on facilities such as nurseries, schools or care homes are prone to heat stress. The Carpathian Development Institute, in collaboration with local authorities in Trnava and Košice, carried out an assessment of vulnerability to high temperatures and heatwaves in residential environment, taking into account the social aspects. Factors such as presence of older people, children and location of facilities serving these vulnerable groups were considered.

Based on the results of the assessment, adaptation strategies are being implemented in both Trnava and Košice, including measures such as thickening of tree stands in parks, building and restoration of water elements (blue infrastructure) and fountains in most vulnerable places, actions aiming at changing citizen behavior during heatwaves, etc., Moreover, a neglected public open space in a vulnerable area in Trnava was redesigned to provide shading through planting of trees and other vegetation.

Case Study

Adapting to the impacts of heatwaves in a changing climate in Botkyrka, Sweden

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2020

In the last century, heatwaves in Sweden occurred once every 20 years (the last being in 1975). Since the start of the new millennium, four heatwaves (2003, 2007, 2010 and 2018) have been already experienced. The frequency of these events is expected to further increase due to climate change; they will occur once every three to five years towards the end of the century. Heatwaves are already leading to increased mortality. Botkyrka is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, not far from the capital with a population of 91.925 inhabitants. In 2010, the municipality experienced prolonged high temperatures, which led among other things to problems in elderly, retirement and nursing homes. The residents were severely hit by the heat and the staff had problems to look after them well enough.

Extensive efforts, partly in the frame of a project held within the Climatools program, have been made in the municipality of Botkyrka to reduce the health risk of heatwaves. Staff of elderly, retirement and nursing homes has acquired knowledge on heatwaves risk and on checklists that must be followed in case of heatwave warnings. If necessary, additional staff can be called and activated to ensure further support to safe care. Therefore, during the 2018 heatwave, the municipality was far better prepared and equipped than in previous situations. Botkyrka is also supporting actions aiming to improve indoor thermal comfort and to create “cool-spots” in various areas of the city.

Case Study

Heat acclimatization and vulnerabilities of people living in the Sahel: The case of Senegal

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement | 2018

This study analysed the heat-related impact on mortality and morbidity for a rural population in Senegal. To evaluate the effect of the duration of heat exposure, we measured heat by the average apparent temperature (with effect of humidity) in a period preceding the event (medical visit, death) ranging from one, five, and ten to thirty days. We investigated the temperature-mortality or -morbidity relationship by vulnerable groups (children and elderly people) and by temperature type (daily minimum, maximum and average). Finally, we used three types of models: GLM, GAM and ARIMAX.

We found that, between 1984 and 2014, high heat resulted in an excess of mortality and medical diagnosed morbidity, especially among children and elderly people.

Case Study

Climate Adapted People Shelters (CAPS)

Penrith City Council | 2018

The CAPS project aimed to reimagine Sydney’s bus shelters as Climate Adapted People Shelters through an open innovation design competition.

Action Plan

Commissioner Karachi

This document, Karachi Heatwave Management Plan, outlines what should happen before, during and after periods of extreme heat in Karachi. It sets out strategies that government and non-government agencies will adopt to prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths in Karachi and capacitate the public, particularly the most vulnerable residents, to take protective action. The Plan describes actions of implementation partners to ensure (1) information on weather conditions and heat health is timely and specific, (2) organizations have the capacity to respond according to their roles, and (3) strategies and actions enabling increase in effectiveness over time. In June 2015 Karachi City experienced a severe heatwave that caused over 1,200 deaths and over 50,000 cases of heat illness. The heatwave caught all levels of government and first responders off-guard, highlighting the need for inter-agency coordination, clarity in roles, and a well-publicized trigger to activate a planned response. To address this need and to prevent health impacts from future heatwaves as climate change intensifies, the Commissioner Office Karachi requested support from the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) to develop a heatwave management plan. Karachi’s first Heatwave Management Plan is the result of a technical assistance project delivered by national and international experts between October 2016 and May 2017, working closely with the Commissioner Office and other stakeholders. The Plan will be subject to an annual performance review and updated versions will be available to implementation partners accordingly.

Case Study

Too hot to handle? Heat resilience in urban South Sudan

South Sudan is at risk from the impact of climate change. This paper reviews the climate change issues faced by South Sudan, and the strategy as outlined to the United Nations. The author argues that the policy overlooks a key potential cause of future morbidity and mortality: increased ambient temperatures, particularly in urban centres due to the urban heat island effect.  The capital is especially susceptible to heat-related mortality as it faces a ‘triple threat’: rapidly rising temperatures, an at-risk population profile, and inadequate planning for the pressures of urbanisation. Four low-cost, evidence-based recommendations are given to mitigate the impact of heatwaves on human health, and it is concluded that South Sudan has great potential to become a regional leader in heat resilience.

Action Plan (FR)

Plan Vaudois de Prévention et d'Intervention Sanitaire en cas de Canicule

État de Vaud | 2020

Depuis 2009, l’Etat de Vaud dispose d’un plan canicule cantonal. Il vise à protéger la santé de la population des effets des vagues de chaleur, à limiter la surcharge du système sanitaire et à coordonner les différents acteurs appelés à intervenir dans ce type de situation. Ainsi, l’Etat définit des mesures de prévention collectives et individuelles et les transmet à la population ainsi qu’aux collectivités publiques et privées. Il prend en compte les situations sanitaire et météorologique ainsi que les prévisions, coordonne les acteurs (partenaires du secteur socio-sanitaire) et prend les décisions nécessaires pour prévenir ou atténuer les atteintes à la santé dues à la canicule.

Action Plan (FR)

Genève: Plan canicule pour les aîné-e-s (Geneva Heatwave plan for seniors)

Ville de Genève | 2020

Suite à une mise en garde de la médecin cantonale, la Ville de Genève active dès samedi 8 août 2020 son Plan canicule en faveur des aîné-e-s et des personnes sans-abri. Un suivi régulier de celles et ceux qui se sont inscrit-e-s auprès du Service social est assuré. Cette année, ce dispositif est particulièrement important compte tenu du contexte sanitaire encore marqué par le COVID-19.

—–

Following a warning from the cantonal doctor, the City of Geneva is activating its heatwave plan for the elderly and homeless from Saturday August 8, 2020. Regular follow-up of those who have registered with the Social Service is ensured. This year, the plan is particularly important given the health context still marked by COVID-19.

Action Plan

Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils | 2018

This strategy has been prepared to increase awareness and facilitate a broader and more coordinated response to the challenges of urban heat in Western Sydney.

Case Study (ES)

Municipalidad de Curridabat | 2019

Las islas de calor o islas térmicas se refieren al patrón térmico que se encuentra en sitios altamente urbanizados en el centro o en la periferia de las ciudades. Son generadas por la pérdida de cobertura vegetal la cual es substituida por superficies impermeables como las carreteras de asfalto, edificios de concreto, ladrillo y otros materiales de construcción, dando como resultado el cambio en el balance hídrico y radiativo superficial, generando, por lo tanto, aumentos en la temperatura de las áreas urbanizadas. La identificación de estas islas térmicas permite desarrollar medidas de adaptación en sitios puntuales de la ciudad. Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de las islas de calor en el Cantón de Curridabat se realizó un análisis de las temperaturas de los últimos cuatro años obtenidas de imágenes satelitales LandSat 8. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan un patrón de calentamiento diferenciado dependiendo del nivel de urbanización y la presencia de vegetación. Así mismo, se señala la relación de estas islas de calor con diferentes grupos vulnerables de la población y la necesidad de tomar medidas considerando la situación actual y futura con los cambios probables del clima. Análisis relacionados con la vegetación remanente en el cantón muestran la importancia de tomar acciones sobre parches de bosques en propiedades privadas y la atención al espacio verde público por habitante que muestra una situación de desigualdad dependiendo del distrito en que se ubique. Finalmente se propone la necesidad de desarrollar una definición para bosque urbano, y de acciones para atender principalmente todo lo relacionado a la adaptación al cambio climático basada en ecosistemas en la ciudad.

Case Study

Emerging climate change-related public health challenges in Africa: A case study of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Heat has the potential to become one of the most significant public health impacts of climate change in the coming decades. Increases in temperature have been linked to both increasing mortality and morbidity. Cities have been recognized as areas of particular vulnerability to heat’s impacts on health, and marginalized groups, such as the poor, appear to have higher heat-related morbidity and mortality. Little research has examined the heat vulnerability of urban informal settlements residents in Africa, even though surface temperatures across Africa are projected to increase at a rate faster than the global average.

This paper addresses this knowledge gap through a mixed-methods analysis of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The heat exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of informal settlement residents were assessed through a combination of climate analyses, semi-structured interviews with local government actors and informal settlement residents, unstructured interviews with health sector respondents, a health impacts literature review, and a stakeholder engagement workshop.

The results suggest that increasing temperatures due to climate change will likely be a significant risk to human health in Dar es Salaam, even though the city does not reach extreme temperature conditions, because informal settlement residents have high exposure, high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity to heat, and because the heat-health relationship is currently an under-prioritized policy issue. While numerous urban planning approaches can play a key role in increasing the resilience of citizens to heat, Dar es Salaam’s past and current growth and development patterns greatly complicate the implementation and enforcement of such approaches. For African cities, the findings highlight an urgent need for more research on the vulnerability and resilience of residents to heat-health impacts, because many African cities are likely to present similar characteristics to those in Dar es Salaam that increase resident’s vulnerability.

Action Plan

Plan de Contingencia Fenómeno Hidrometeorologico 2013

Gobierno del Estado de Quintana Roo | 2013

Action Plan

La Plata Plan de Contingencia Hidrometeorológica (Hydrometeorological Contingency Plan)

Municipalidad de La Plata | 2014

La ciudad de La Plata y el Gran La Plata presentan una notoria vulnerabilidad ante eventos hidrometeorológicos severos, que se ve reflejada en el impacto que producen los mismos en la calidad de vida de sus habitantes, daños a bienes espacios públicos y privados. Para una adecuada Gestión Integral del Riesgo de Desastres en el Partido de La Plata, es necesario y prioritario establecer lineamientos para la Gestión de Emergencias, ya sean estas de origen Natural o Tecnológico. Este Plan General de Gestión de Emergencias -establecido a principios de 2014- tiene los siguientes objetivos:

Objetivo General:

  • Reconocer las amenazas de origen natural como las provocadas por la actividad de los seres humanos (tecnológicas).

Objetivos Específicos:

  • Identificar los actores y sectores involucrados en la gestión de emergencias.
  • Establecer roles y funciones para la gestión de emergencias.
  • Profundizar las estrategias de coordinación entre los organismos municipales, provinciales y nacionales involucrados en acciones de manejo de crisis (advertencia/alarma y respuesta) y rehabilitación ante un evento adverso.
  • Promover actividades de prevención y preparación comunitaria.
  • Indicar a la población las acciones a tomar Un Plan de Contingencia es un conjunto de procedimientos específicos que presentan una estructura estratégica y operativa contribuyentes a controlar una situación de emergencia y minimizar sus consecuencias negativas.

Case Study

Heatwave Early Actions Test in Hanoi

German Red Cross | 2019

In advance of a heatwave affecting Hanoi from 18-21 July 2019, Red Cross cooling centres and other early actions were tested in an attempt reduce the occurrence of heat-related symptoms in vulnerable populations.

Action Plan

Heatwave Plan for England

Public Health England, Department of Health and Social Care, and NHS England | 2018

Action Plan

Action Plan

Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University, University of Arizona | 2017

The Arizona Extreme Weather and Public Health Program’s primary climate-sensitive hazard topics include extreme heat, wildfires, air quality, drought, flooding, extreme cold, and vector-borne diseases. Extreme heat is a major concern to Arizona and a large focus of their work due to the frequency and severity of extreme heat events. A large portion of the state’s population is frequently exposed to outside temperatures above 100 degrees from May through September. Arizona experienced about 1,200 heat caused deaths during 2007–2017. In addition to extreme heat, the arid climate leads to other hazards such as flooding during monsoon season and more wildfires due to increased drought and high temperatures.


The Arizona Extreme Weather and Public Health Program facilitates the development and sharing of local knowledge of climate and health effects and the implementation of public health interventions for climate-related hazards affecting the state’s residents and visitors. Partnerships have led to several projects on extreme heat, such as heat alerts sent to schools and public and healthcare facilities that provide steps for heat safety. Additionally, local projects have assessed and improved cooling center networks, which help provide a cool space to get out of the heat during the summer. The program has created and distributed heat safety toolkits for various specific at-risk populations, including outdoor workers, older adults, and school children. The program and local partners have also increased their capacity to perform heat illness surveillance activities and coordinated a state heat preparedness workgroup.


In addition to adapting to the challenges of heat, other work has focused on understanding climate impacts on vector-borne diseases and the fungal disease called Valley fever. The program has also assisted in developing public health emergency response plans for wildfires and flooding. This work benefits various populations such as the homeless, elderly, children, local officials, and residents of low income and minority neighborhoods.

Action Plan

New Hampshire Excessive Heat Emergency Response Plan

State of New Hampshire, Department of Health and HumanServices | 2014

Action Plan

Action Plan

South Australia Extreme Heat Strategy

Government of South Australia | 2016

Action Plan

Action Plan

Action Plan

Action Plan

Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan 2019

Amdavad Municipal Corporation, NRDC, Indian Institutes of Public Health, Mount Sinai, University of Washington | 2019

Action Plan

Heat Action Plan for Odisha, 2020

Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA) | 2020

Action Plan

Rajasthan Draft Heat Action Plan

RSPCB, DMRD, Govt. of Rajasthan, UNICEF Rajasthan and IIPH-Gandhinagar Initiative | 2017

Action Plan

Tamil Nadu Heat Wave Action Plan 2019

Commissionerate of Revenue Administration andDisaster Management | 2019

Action Plan

Telangana State Heatwave Action Plan

Revenue (Disaster Management) Department,Government of Telangana | 2019

Action Plan

Prevention and Management of Heat Wave in Uttar Pradesh 2018-19

Uttar Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority | 2018

Action Plan (IT)

Italy National Heat Health Plan (Piano operativo nazionale di prevenzione degli effetti del caldo sulla salute)

Ministero della Salute | 2020

(National Plan for the prevention of the effects of heatwaves on health)

Action Plan

Luxembourg Extreme Weather Plan

Le Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg | 2015

Action Plan

Action Plan

Plano de contingência temperaturas extremas adversas

Administração Regional de Saúde de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo | 2013

Action Plan

Netherlands National Heatwave Plan (Nationaal Hitteplan)

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu | 2015

Case Study

Hermosillo, Mexico, Captures Heat-Related Illnesses at Medical Facilities Using New Database

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC)

Working with Cofepris, the Ministry of Health, and the CEC, Sonora’s regional health authority (Comisión Estatal de Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios del Estado de Sonora—Coesprisson) established several objectives with the goal of creating a real-time SyS system for the city of Hermosillo in a 2016 pilot SyS project that would enable timely identification of health impacts due to extreme temperature and evidence-based policy development to reduce mortality and morbidity rates.

Case Study

How hot will it be? Translating climate model outputs for public health practice in the United States

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

What meteorological factors are going to change? How much will they change? Will there be spatial variation? These are foundational issues for public health agencies in preparing for the impacts of climate change. In the wake of the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health agencies in the United States are using forecasted meteorological data to monitor health vulnerabilities across populations and places resulting from climate change.

Case Study

Implementation of the Heat-Health Action Plan of North Macedonia (2014)

Climate ADAPT | 2014

Case study of the development of North Macedonia’s National Heat-Health Action Plan, which has been developed within the National Strategy for Adaptation for the health sector to implement adaptation measures and prevent health consequences associated with extreme heat due to climate change.

Case Study

Innovative Heat Wave Early Warning System And Action Plan In Ahmedabad, India

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

Following a deadly heat wave in May 2010, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) realized that coordinated action was needed to protect its residents from extreme heat and to become more climate-resilient

Case Study

Iterative Development And Testing Of A 
Heat Warning And Information System In Alberta, Canada

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In 2012, consistent with Alberta’s climate change adaption framework, Alberta Health, the Provincial Government Department of Health, initiated a high-level vulnerability assessment that led to the development of a Heat Warning and Information System (HWIS) involving collaboration between several agencies with expertise outside of public health.

Case Study

Knowing When Cold Winters And Warm Summers Can Reduce Ambulatory Care Performance In London

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

As part of a climate change risk assessment, Public Health England took the initiative to analyse the impact of cold winters and warm summers on the number of ambulance call-outs and ambulance response times in London. This study is the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Initial findings show that there is a clear relationship between air temperature and emergency ambulance calls.

Case Study

Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures.

Case Study

Protecting People from Sweltering City Summers

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Federal, state, and local agencies are working to provide more advanced warnings and services to help people better prepare for—and respond to—extreme heat events

Case Study

Protecting The Elderly From Heat And Cold Stress In Hong Kong: Using Climate Information And Client-Friendly Communication Technology

Hong Kong Observatory (HKO), Senior Citizen Home Safety Association (SCHSA) | 2018

Close collaboration between SCHSA and HKO highlights the importance of partnership and stakeholder engagement in improving the delivery and communication of useful weather and climate information to the health sector and promoting public awareness on the care of elderly people

Case Study

Supreme: An Integrated Heat Health Warning System For Quebec

Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (INSPQ), the Ministry of Public Security (Québec), andEnvironment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) | 2018

The SUPREME system, developed by the INSPQ in 2010 together with a users committee, provides access to indicators that relate exposure to hazards (temperatures, urban heat islands, etc.), socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods (population density, deprivation index, etc.), health problems (deaths, emergency room admissions, etc.), and follow-up during and after an intervention by field teams. Post-event reports are produced regionally and aggregated annually.

Case Study

The Heat Health Warning System of DWD - Concept and Lessons Learned

DWD

The HHWS was developed to reduce the heat related mortality. The HHWS is in operation since 2005 and preliminary studies indicate a reduction in the heat related mortality ever since.

Case Study

Vulnerability to heat stress: A case study of Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India

ASSAR

This study provided a pilot assessment of vulnerability to heat exposure in a rural context during the peak summer months of 2016, with a focus on indoor and outdoor temperatures.

Case Study

Where Do We Need Shade? Mapping Urban Heat Islands in Richmond, Virginia

U.S Climate Resilience Toolkit

Citizen-scientists took to the streets on specially equipped bikes and cars to find out where it’s hottest—and where residents might be most vulnerable to extreme urban heat.

Case Study

Tatabánya, Hungary, addressing the impacts of urban heat waves and forest fires with alert measures

Climate ADAPT | 2014

The City of Tatabánya has an approved comprehensive adaptation strategy, the Local Climate Change Action Plan, that is in its implementation stage. This Plan is based upon a comprehensive approach taking into consideration both mitigation and adaptation, incorporating climate considerations into decision-making, and including adaptation concerns in municipal processes. At this time, three measures have been implemented: (1) a local heat alert system; (2) the Smart Sun Educational Programme; and (3) building capacity of the fire brigade.

Case Study

Addressing heat-related health risks in urban India: Ahmedabad’s Heat Action Plan

CDKN | 2014

This report looks at how the local community of Ahmedabad in Western India is preparing for the increasingly extreme heat of the city.

Case Study

Bracing for Heat in Minnesota

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Heat waves bring some level of discomfort to nearly everyone. When excessive heat catches vulnerable populations off guard, though, discomfort can advance to illness and even death. Learn about strategies taken in Minnesota that help protect people in both rural and urban settings.

Case Study

Building Evidence That Effective Heat Alert Systems Save Lives In Southeast Australia

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In the January 2009 heatwave, a prototype heatwave alert system had just been introduced, based on research identifying a threshold temperature above which excess mortality occurred in Melbourne, Australia. By the time of the January 2014 heat wave, the heat alert system had been considerably refined, based on further scientific work (2–4) and intense interactions between climate scientists and public health authorities. The excess mortality associated with the 2014 heat wave was substantially lower than in 2009, even though the 2014 heat wave lasted longer.

Case Study

Catalyzing Investment and Building Capacity in Las Cruces

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Planning with extreme weather thresholds catalyzes a $400,000 green infrastructure investment in a historically underserved neighborhood in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

Case Study

Cctalk! Communicating Effectively With High-Risk Populations In Austria:
 A Five-Step Methodology

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In order to reduce the vulnerability of elderly people to heat waves in Austria, a new communication approach was developed and tested as part of the CcTalK! Project.

Case Study

Charting Colorado’s Vulnerability to Climate Change

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Responding to growing awareness of climate change impacts, the State of Colorado commissioned two of its universities to complete an initial study of the state’s vulnerabilities.

Case Study

Cincinnati's Urban Canopy Policy

Cincinnati created a dedicated funding stream for its urban forestry program in 1981 that has enabled the city to maintain
a high percentage of its tree canopy. Heat mitigation is a key reason tree canopy is a priority. Although Cincinnati has a temperate climate and harsh, cold winters, the urban heat island effect can make the city up to 17°F hotter than nearby
rural areas during the summer.

Case Study

Cool Neighborhoods NYC

NYC Mayor’sOffice of Resiliency

Cool Neighborhoods NYC is a strategy developed by the Mayor’s Office of Resiliency to provide and target additional funding and to coordinate multiple extreme heat mitigation and adaptation projects. The objective of Cool Neighborhoods NYC is to “help keep New Yorkers safe during hot weather, mitigate urban heat island effect drivers and protect against the worst impacts of rising temperatures from climate change.”

Case Study

Cool surfaces: roofs and roads

Los Angeles is the first U.S. city to set a citywide temperature reduction goal, and switching to cool surfaces is a key strategy for achieving that goal. Los Angeles’s goal is to reduce the urban heat island effect by 1.7°F by 2025 and average temperature 3°F by 2035, but the city is 40 percent covered by pavement. Los Angeles’s reflective paving program, which targets both rooftops and public streets, complements other UHI reduction programs including a Million Trees initiative and integrated planning with the Department of Health.

Case Study

Creating a Model Climate Resilient City

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

The City of Long Beach, California, sees signs of climate change on land and in the ocean. After compiling the City’s official climate assessment report, local stakeholders also produced a more accessible and user-friendly summary version and shared it broadly to stimulate informed discussion and decision making across the city.

Case Study

Deadly Chicago Heat Wave of 1995

AdaptNY | 2014

This AdaptNY case study of the Chicago heat wave of 1995 looks at how the urban heat island effect is exacerbated by socio-economic factors and poor city planning.

Case Study

Developing an Early Warning System to Prevent Heat Illness

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Residents of the Carolinas are familiar with hot summers, but in some areas excessive heat events bring a higher risk for heat-related illness—and even death. A new tool can help local communities get ahead of heat events so they can reduce risk for their residents.

Case Study

Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance for Heat-Related Illness in Michigan with Improved Heat Syndrome Definition

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC)

With the goal to support the development of population heat resiliency and the capacity to withstand the effects of climate change, Michigan’s MDHHS and the CEC partnered to improve the MSSS to include a HRI-specific syndrome.

Case Study

Expanding Heat Resilience Across India

NRDC International | 2019

This issue brief highlights the progress at the city, state and national level in India in 2019 to improve climate resilience to extreme heat, and captures key elements of heat action plans.

Case Study

Expanding heat resilience across India: Heat Action Plan highlights

NRDC | 2020

Drawing lessons from the ground-breaking 2013 Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan,3 city, state, and national level authorities are ramping up to implement extreme heat warning systems and preparedness plans. In 2020, the national government is working with 23 states and over 100 cities and districts to develop and implement heat action plans across India.

Case Study

Finding The Right Thresholds To Trigger Action In Heat Wave Early Warning Systems In Spain

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In Spain, the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET) has been successful in using weather prediction models to forecast short- and medium-range extreme temperatures, and an early warning system (Meteolerta) has been implemented in cooperation with European EUMETNET member countries (MeteoAlarm).

Case Study

Green Roof Bylaw and Eco-roof incentive in Toronto

City of Toronto

Toronto was the first city in North America to require and govern the construction of green roofs on new development. The Green Roof Bylaw (which includes a Green Roof Construction Standard) and the parallel Eco-Roof Incentive Program are responsible for more than 1.2 million square feet of new green space, an estimated reduction in citywide temperature, and widespread promotion of cool roofs.

Case Study

Heat Wave And Health Risk Early Warning Systems In China

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

This project, which is part of a broader WHO/UNDP Global Environment Facility (GEF)-funded project, developed and implemented a heatwave early warning system to reduce the health risks and to increase the capacity of health systems and community residents to prepare for and cope with periods of extreme temperatures. The project was piloted in four cities: Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, located in different climate zones within China.

Case Study

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GHHIN

This case study provides an overview of the active heat health collaborations, projects and research ongoing in Hong Kong and presented during the First Global Forum on Heat and Health.

Hong Kong faces unique challenges from environmental hazards, such as climate change and variability, due to its densely populated and almost entirely urbanized living environment. An increased vulnerability to the urban heat island effect means that its inhabitants are more susceptible to the harmful, and sometimes deadly, health effects of extreme heat. This case study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary partners and agencies are collaborating to protect the most vulnerable communities.

Action Plan

Ministry of Health and Public Welfare, Government of India | 2021

The National Action Plan on Heat Related lllnesses, developed with inputs from various governmental and non-governmental experts, is intended to be used by government and private health care facilities, health departments, and policymakers tasked with strengthening health facilities and emergency response. This document provides guidance to manage severe heat-related illnesses and to report them under National Heat Related
Illness surveillance.

Case Study

Combating the heat island effect and poor air quality with green ventilation corridors

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2014

Stuttgart’s location in a valley basin, its mild climate, low wind speeds, industrial activity and high volume of traffic has made it susceptible to poor air quality. Development on the valley slopes has prevented air from moving through the city, which worsens the air quality and contributes to the urban heat island effect. A Climate Atlas was developed for the Stuttgart region, presenting the distribution of temperature and cold air flows according to the city’s topography and land use. Based on this information, a number of planning and zoning regulations are recommended that also aim to preserve and increase open space in densely built-up areas.

Case Study

Berlin Biotope Area Factor – Implementation of guidelines helping to control temperature and runoff

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2020

In inner city Berlin, plans for the development of new buildings are subjected to the Berlin Landscape Programme, which includes a regulation requiring a proportion of the area to be left as green space: the Biotope Area Factor (BAF) or BFF (Biotop Flächenfaktor). All potential green areas, such as courtyards, roofs and walls are included in the BAF. The regulation is a part of a larger set of documents relating to landscape planning and design as well as species protection. It responds to the need to encourage more green space in densely built-up urban areas.

Climate change is expected to increase and intensify heatwaves and water-related extremes; two impacts that are particularly relevant for the urban context. By encouraging the introduction of more green space, the BAF is an important mechanism to reduce local climate change vulnerability as its measures help to lower the temperatures and improve the runoff management. The implementation of the BAF started in 1994 and is still on-going. A considerable number of new built areas in the inner city centre have implemented this regulation, translating it into green areas.

Case Study

Operation of the Portuguese Contingency Heatwaves Plan

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2015

Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. The elderly are particular vulnerable to extreme heat stress. Being part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal has a mild Mediterranean climate. Climate change projections indicate that the number of days with extreme heat in Portugal will increase with urban areas being more sensitive. If future populations become more urbanized and the number of elderly continues to increase, the issue of heat-related mortality will likely become more severe.

During the 2003 heatwave in Europe, Portugal was one of the few countries that already had an early warning system in place: but only for Lisbon, the capital city. Following the 2003 heatwave, the Portuguese Heatwave Contingency Plan was established and has been in operation every year from May to September. This is a national plan covering the whole continental Portugal. The aim of the current Portuguese Heatwave Contingency Plan is to prevent the adverse health effects of heat stress on the population during periods of elevated temperatures. Daily alerts are key factors to the successful implementation of this plan; they indicate what protection measures must be carried out to protect the population during periods of elevated temperatures.

Case Study

Operation of the Austrian Heat Protection Plan

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2017

Evidence that increasing temperatures leads to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. Especially the 2003 heat wave in Europe raised the awareness of negative impacts of heat stress on human health in Austria. Increased incidence of heat waves leads to an increase in heat stress, especially in urban areas; the intensification of the heat-island effect is to be expected. Following the 2003 heat wave, different Austrian provinces like Styria (2011) and Carinthia (2013) developed heat protection plans, based on recommendations from the World Health Organisation, which recommended to develop strategies, plans and packages of measures in order to protect citizens from heat stress.

These plans provide an information basis for public health services. Based on the experience from the two provinces, an Austrian heat protection plan, led by the Ministry of Health and Woman´s Affairs with involvement of several relevant actors on the national and provincial level was prepared and put in action in 2017. The plan sets out the connection between climate change and health as well as the meteorological baseline information for heat warnings, which is provided by the National Met Service (ZAMG). The information and warnings are directed to the citizen via a sound network of institutions and actors in the health field.

Case Study

Heat Hotline Parasol – Kassel region

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2017

Demographic change and climate change together place great challenges on the society. The life expectancy of the population in Germany rises and so does the share of older people. Besides chronic patients and children, the elderly are especially affected by the effects of the climate change. At the same time more and more people live in single person households (increase from 14.56 million in 2004 to 16.83 million in 2016 in Germany), which can influence their social isolation. How can we reach these people in order to prevent negative impacts during heatwaves? This is where the heat hotline parasol from the city of Kassel (around 200.000 inhabitants) in Germany comes into play. The heat hotline parasol is a free of charge hotline that calls registered citizens and provides information on heat-warnings from the German Weather Service and suggest measures how to best deal with and adapt to higher temperatures and heat. With this hotline special support is provided to citizens, especially elderly and their families, to deal with heat in the urban area of the city of Kassel. The Elderly Committee of the City of Kassel and the Health Department of the Kassel region cooperates in the heat hotline parasol.

Case Study

Social vulnerability to heatwaves – from assessment to implementation of adaptation measures in Košice and Trnava, Slovakia

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2018

High temperatures and heatwaves in the summer pose increasing risks to people living in Slovakian cities. In particular older people and children, those living on top floors in poorly insulated buildings, and those relying on facilities such as nurseries, schools or care homes are prone to heat stress. The Carpathian Development Institute, in collaboration with local authorities in Trnava and Košice, carried out an assessment of vulnerability to high temperatures and heatwaves in residential environment, taking into account the social aspects. Factors such as presence of older people, children and location of facilities serving these vulnerable groups were considered.

Based on the results of the assessment, adaptation strategies are being implemented in both Trnava and Košice, including measures such as thickening of tree stands in parks, building and restoration of water elements (blue infrastructure) and fountains in most vulnerable places, actions aiming at changing citizen behavior during heatwaves, etc., Moreover, a neglected public open space in a vulnerable area in Trnava was redesigned to provide shading through planting of trees and other vegetation.

Case Study

Adapting to the impacts of heatwaves in a changing climate in Botkyrka, Sweden

European Climate and Health Observatory | 2020

In the last century, heatwaves in Sweden occurred once every 20 years (the last being in 1975). Since the start of the new millennium, four heatwaves (2003, 2007, 2010 and 2018) have been already experienced. The frequency of these events is expected to further increase due to climate change; they will occur once every three to five years towards the end of the century. Heatwaves are already leading to increased mortality. Botkyrka is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, not far from the capital with a population of 91.925 inhabitants. In 2010, the municipality experienced prolonged high temperatures, which led among other things to problems in elderly, retirement and nursing homes. The residents were severely hit by the heat and the staff had problems to look after them well enough.

Extensive efforts, partly in the frame of a project held within the Climatools program, have been made in the municipality of Botkyrka to reduce the health risk of heatwaves. Staff of elderly, retirement and nursing homes has acquired knowledge on heatwaves risk and on checklists that must be followed in case of heatwave warnings. If necessary, additional staff can be called and activated to ensure further support to safe care. Therefore, during the 2018 heatwave, the municipality was far better prepared and equipped than in previous situations. Botkyrka is also supporting actions aiming to improve indoor thermal comfort and to create “cool-spots” in various areas of the city.

Case Study

Heat acclimatization and vulnerabilities of people living in the Sahel: The case of Senegal

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement | 2018

This study analysed the heat-related impact on mortality and morbidity for a rural population in Senegal. To evaluate the effect of the duration of heat exposure, we measured heat by the average apparent temperature (with effect of humidity) in a period preceding the event (medical visit, death) ranging from one, five, and ten to thirty days. We investigated the temperature-mortality or -morbidity relationship by vulnerable groups (children and elderly people) and by temperature type (daily minimum, maximum and average). Finally, we used three types of models: GLM, GAM and ARIMAX.

We found that, between 1984 and 2014, high heat resulted in an excess of mortality and medical diagnosed morbidity, especially among children and elderly people.

Case Study

Climate Adapted People Shelters (CAPS)

Penrith City Council | 2018

The CAPS project aimed to reimagine Sydney’s bus shelters as Climate Adapted People Shelters through an open innovation design competition.

Action Plan

Commissioner Karachi

This document, Karachi Heatwave Management Plan, outlines what should happen before, during and after periods of extreme heat in Karachi. It sets out strategies that government and non-government agencies will adopt to prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths in Karachi and capacitate the public, particularly the most vulnerable residents, to take protective action. The Plan describes actions of implementation partners to ensure (1) information on weather conditions and heat health is timely and specific, (2) organizations have the capacity to respond according to their roles, and (3) strategies and actions enabling increase in effectiveness over time. In June 2015 Karachi City experienced a severe heatwave that caused over 1,200 deaths and over 50,000 cases of heat illness. The heatwave caught all levels of government and first responders off-guard, highlighting the need for inter-agency coordination, clarity in roles, and a well-publicized trigger to activate a planned response. To address this need and to prevent health impacts from future heatwaves as climate change intensifies, the Commissioner Office Karachi requested support from the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) to develop a heatwave management plan. Karachi’s first Heatwave Management Plan is the result of a technical assistance project delivered by national and international experts between October 2016 and May 2017, working closely with the Commissioner Office and other stakeholders. The Plan will be subject to an annual performance review and updated versions will be available to implementation partners accordingly.

Case Study

Too hot to handle? Heat resilience in urban South Sudan

South Sudan is at risk from the impact of climate change. This paper reviews the climate change issues faced by South Sudan, and the strategy as outlined to the United Nations. The author argues that the policy overlooks a key potential cause of future morbidity and mortality: increased ambient temperatures, particularly in urban centres due to the urban heat island effect.  The capital is especially susceptible to heat-related mortality as it faces a ‘triple threat’: rapidly rising temperatures, an at-risk population profile, and inadequate planning for the pressures of urbanisation. Four low-cost, evidence-based recommendations are given to mitigate the impact of heatwaves on human health, and it is concluded that South Sudan has great potential to become a regional leader in heat resilience.

Action Plan (FR)

Plan Vaudois de Prévention et d'Intervention Sanitaire en cas de Canicule

État de Vaud | 2020

Depuis 2009, l’Etat de Vaud dispose d’un plan canicule cantonal. Il vise à protéger la santé de la population des effets des vagues de chaleur, à limiter la surcharge du système sanitaire et à coordonner les différents acteurs appelés à intervenir dans ce type de situation. Ainsi, l’Etat définit des mesures de prévention collectives et individuelles et les transmet à la population ainsi qu’aux collectivités publiques et privées. Il prend en compte les situations sanitaire et météorologique ainsi que les prévisions, coordonne les acteurs (partenaires du secteur socio-sanitaire) et prend les décisions nécessaires pour prévenir ou atténuer les atteintes à la santé dues à la canicule.

Action Plan (FR)

Genève: Plan canicule pour les aîné-e-s (Geneva Heatwave plan for seniors)

Ville de Genève | 2020

Suite à une mise en garde de la médecin cantonale, la Ville de Genève active dès samedi 8 août 2020 son Plan canicule en faveur des aîné-e-s et des personnes sans-abri. Un suivi régulier de celles et ceux qui se sont inscrit-e-s auprès du Service social est assuré. Cette année, ce dispositif est particulièrement important compte tenu du contexte sanitaire encore marqué par le COVID-19.

—–

Following a warning from the cantonal doctor, the City of Geneva is activating its heatwave plan for the elderly and homeless from Saturday August 8, 2020. Regular follow-up of those who have registered with the Social Service is ensured. This year, the plan is particularly important given the health context still marked by COVID-19.

Action Plan

Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils | 2018

This strategy has been prepared to increase awareness and facilitate a broader and more coordinated response to the challenges of urban heat in Western Sydney.

Case Study (ES)

Municipalidad de Curridabat | 2019

Las islas de calor o islas térmicas se refieren al patrón térmico que se encuentra en sitios altamente urbanizados en el centro o en la periferia de las ciudades. Son generadas por la pérdida de cobertura vegetal la cual es substituida por superficies impermeables como las carreteras de asfalto, edificios de concreto, ladrillo y otros materiales de construcción, dando como resultado el cambio en el balance hídrico y radiativo superficial, generando, por lo tanto, aumentos en la temperatura de las áreas urbanizadas. La identificación de estas islas térmicas permite desarrollar medidas de adaptación en sitios puntuales de la ciudad. Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de las islas de calor en el Cantón de Curridabat se realizó un análisis de las temperaturas de los últimos cuatro años obtenidas de imágenes satelitales LandSat 8. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan un patrón de calentamiento diferenciado dependiendo del nivel de urbanización y la presencia de vegetación. Así mismo, se señala la relación de estas islas de calor con diferentes grupos vulnerables de la población y la necesidad de tomar medidas considerando la situación actual y futura con los cambios probables del clima. Análisis relacionados con la vegetación remanente en el cantón muestran la importancia de tomar acciones sobre parches de bosques en propiedades privadas y la atención al espacio verde público por habitante que muestra una situación de desigualdad dependiendo del distrito en que se ubique. Finalmente se propone la necesidad de desarrollar una definición para bosque urbano, y de acciones para atender principalmente todo lo relacionado a la adaptación al cambio climático basada en ecosistemas en la ciudad.

Case Study

Emerging climate change-related public health challenges in Africa: A case study of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Heat has the potential to become one of the most significant public health impacts of climate change in the coming decades. Increases in temperature have been linked to both increasing mortality and morbidity. Cities have been recognized as areas of particular vulnerability to heat’s impacts on health, and marginalized groups, such as the poor, appear to have higher heat-related morbidity and mortality. Little research has examined the heat vulnerability of urban informal settlements residents in Africa, even though surface temperatures across Africa are projected to increase at a rate faster than the global average.

This paper addresses this knowledge gap through a mixed-methods analysis of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The heat exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of informal settlement residents were assessed through a combination of climate analyses, semi-structured interviews with local government actors and informal settlement residents, unstructured interviews with health sector respondents, a health impacts literature review, and a stakeholder engagement workshop.

The results suggest that increasing temperatures due to climate change will likely be a significant risk to human health in Dar es Salaam, even though the city does not reach extreme temperature conditions, because informal settlement residents have high exposure, high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity to heat, and because the heat-health relationship is currently an under-prioritized policy issue. While numerous urban planning approaches can play a key role in increasing the resilience of citizens to heat, Dar es Salaam’s past and current growth and development patterns greatly complicate the implementation and enforcement of such approaches. For African cities, the findings highlight an urgent need for more research on the vulnerability and resilience of residents to heat-health impacts, because many African cities are likely to present similar characteristics to those in Dar es Salaam that increase resident’s vulnerability.

Action Plan

Plan de Contingencia Fenómeno Hidrometeorologico 2013

Gobierno del Estado de Quintana Roo | 2013

Action Plan

La Plata Plan de Contingencia Hidrometeorológica (Hydrometeorological Contingency Plan)

Municipalidad de La Plata | 2014

La ciudad de La Plata y el Gran La Plata presentan una notoria vulnerabilidad ante eventos hidrometeorológicos severos, que se ve reflejada en el impacto que producen los mismos en la calidad de vida de sus habitantes, daños a bienes espacios públicos y privados. Para una adecuada Gestión Integral del Riesgo de Desastres en el Partido de La Plata, es necesario y prioritario establecer lineamientos para la Gestión de Emergencias, ya sean estas de origen Natural o Tecnológico. Este Plan General de Gestión de Emergencias -establecido a principios de 2014- tiene los siguientes objetivos:

Objetivo General:

  • Reconocer las amenazas de origen natural como las provocadas por la actividad de los seres humanos (tecnológicas).

Objetivos Específicos:

  • Identificar los actores y sectores involucrados en la gestión de emergencias.
  • Establecer roles y funciones para la gestión de emergencias.
  • Profundizar las estrategias de coordinación entre los organismos municipales, provinciales y nacionales involucrados en acciones de manejo de crisis (advertencia/alarma y respuesta) y rehabilitación ante un evento adverso.
  • Promover actividades de prevención y preparación comunitaria.
  • Indicar a la población las acciones a tomar Un Plan de Contingencia es un conjunto de procedimientos específicos que presentan una estructura estratégica y operativa contribuyentes a controlar una situación de emergencia y minimizar sus consecuencias negativas.

Case Study

Heatwave Early Actions Test in Hanoi

German Red Cross | 2019

In advance of a heatwave affecting Hanoi from 18-21 July 2019, Red Cross cooling centres and other early actions were tested in an attempt reduce the occurrence of heat-related symptoms in vulnerable populations.

Action Plan

Heatwave Plan for England

Public Health England, Department of Health and Social Care, and NHS England | 2018

Action Plan

Action Plan

Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University, University of Arizona | 2017

The Arizona Extreme Weather and Public Health Program’s primary climate-sensitive hazard topics include extreme heat, wildfires, air quality, drought, flooding, extreme cold, and vector-borne diseases. Extreme heat is a major concern to Arizona and a large focus of their work due to the frequency and severity of extreme heat events. A large portion of the state’s population is frequently exposed to outside temperatures above 100 degrees from May through September. Arizona experienced about 1,200 heat caused deaths during 2007–2017. In addition to extreme heat, the arid climate leads to other hazards such as flooding during monsoon season and more wildfires due to increased drought and high temperatures.


The Arizona Extreme Weather and Public Health Program facilitates the development and sharing of local knowledge of climate and health effects and the implementation of public health interventions for climate-related hazards affecting the state’s residents and visitors. Partnerships have led to several projects on extreme heat, such as heat alerts sent to schools and public and healthcare facilities that provide steps for heat safety. Additionally, local projects have assessed and improved cooling center networks, which help provide a cool space to get out of the heat during the summer. The program has created and distributed heat safety toolkits for various specific at-risk populations, including outdoor workers, older adults, and school children. The program and local partners have also increased their capacity to perform heat illness surveillance activities and coordinated a state heat preparedness workgroup.


In addition to adapting to the challenges of heat, other work has focused on understanding climate impacts on vector-borne diseases and the fungal disease called Valley fever. The program has also assisted in developing public health emergency response plans for wildfires and flooding. This work benefits various populations such as the homeless, elderly, children, local officials, and residents of low income and minority neighborhoods.

Action Plan

New Hampshire Excessive Heat Emergency Response Plan

State of New Hampshire, Department of Health and HumanServices | 2014

Action Plan

Action Plan

South Australia Extreme Heat Strategy

Government of South Australia | 2016

Action Plan

Action Plan

Action Plan

Action Plan

Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan 2019

Amdavad Municipal Corporation, NRDC, Indian Institutes of Public Health, Mount Sinai, University of Washington | 2019

Action Plan

Heat Action Plan for Odisha, 2020

Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA) | 2020

Action Plan

Rajasthan Draft Heat Action Plan

RSPCB, DMRD, Govt. of Rajasthan, UNICEF Rajasthan and IIPH-Gandhinagar Initiative | 2017

Action Plan

Tamil Nadu Heat Wave Action Plan 2019

Commissionerate of Revenue Administration andDisaster Management | 2019

Action Plan

Telangana State Heatwave Action Plan

Revenue (Disaster Management) Department,Government of Telangana | 2019

Action Plan

Prevention and Management of Heat Wave in Uttar Pradesh 2018-19

Uttar Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority | 2018

Action Plan (IT)

Italy National Heat Health Plan (Piano operativo nazionale di prevenzione degli effetti del caldo sulla salute)

Ministero della Salute | 2020

(National Plan for the prevention of the effects of heatwaves on health)

Action Plan

Luxembourg Extreme Weather Plan

Le Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg | 2015

Action Plan

Action Plan

Plano de contingência temperaturas extremas adversas

Administração Regional de Saúde de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo | 2013

Action Plan

Netherlands National Heatwave Plan (Nationaal Hitteplan)

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu | 2015

Case Study

Hermosillo, Mexico, Captures Heat-Related Illnesses at Medical Facilities Using New Database

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC)

Working with Cofepris, the Ministry of Health, and the CEC, Sonora’s regional health authority (Comisión Estatal de Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios del Estado de Sonora—Coesprisson) established several objectives with the goal of creating a real-time SyS system for the city of Hermosillo in a 2016 pilot SyS project that would enable timely identification of health impacts due to extreme temperature and evidence-based policy development to reduce mortality and morbidity rates.

Case Study

How hot will it be? Translating climate model outputs for public health practice in the United States

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

What meteorological factors are going to change? How much will they change? Will there be spatial variation? These are foundational issues for public health agencies in preparing for the impacts of climate change. In the wake of the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health agencies in the United States are using forecasted meteorological data to monitor health vulnerabilities across populations and places resulting from climate change.

Case Study

Implementation of the Heat-Health Action Plan of North Macedonia (2014)

Climate ADAPT | 2014

Case study of the development of North Macedonia’s National Heat-Health Action Plan, which has been developed within the National Strategy for Adaptation for the health sector to implement adaptation measures and prevent health consequences associated with extreme heat due to climate change.

Case Study

Innovative Heat Wave Early Warning System And Action Plan In Ahmedabad, India

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

Following a deadly heat wave in May 2010, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) realized that coordinated action was needed to protect its residents from extreme heat and to become more climate-resilient

Case Study

Iterative Development And Testing Of A 
Heat Warning And Information System In Alberta, Canada

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In 2012, consistent with Alberta’s climate change adaption framework, Alberta Health, the Provincial Government Department of Health, initiated a high-level vulnerability assessment that led to the development of a Heat Warning and Information System (HWIS) involving collaboration between several agencies with expertise outside of public health.

Case Study

Knowing When Cold Winters And Warm Summers Can Reduce Ambulatory Care Performance In London

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

As part of a climate change risk assessment, Public Health England took the initiative to analyse the impact of cold winters and warm summers on the number of ambulance call-outs and ambulance response times in London. This study is the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Initial findings show that there is a clear relationship between air temperature and emergency ambulance calls.

Case Study

Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures.

Case Study

Protecting People from Sweltering City Summers

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Federal, state, and local agencies are working to provide more advanced warnings and services to help people better prepare for—and respond to—extreme heat events

Case Study

Protecting The Elderly From Heat And Cold Stress In Hong Kong: Using Climate Information And Client-Friendly Communication Technology

Hong Kong Observatory (HKO), Senior Citizen Home Safety Association (SCHSA) | 2018

Close collaboration between SCHSA and HKO highlights the importance of partnership and stakeholder engagement in improving the delivery and communication of useful weather and climate information to the health sector and promoting public awareness on the care of elderly people

Case Study

Supreme: An Integrated Heat Health Warning System For Quebec

Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (INSPQ), the Ministry of Public Security (Québec), andEnvironment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) | 2018

The SUPREME system, developed by the INSPQ in 2010 together with a users committee, provides access to indicators that relate exposure to hazards (temperatures, urban heat islands, etc.), socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods (population density, deprivation index, etc.), health problems (deaths, emergency room admissions, etc.), and follow-up during and after an intervention by field teams. Post-event reports are produced regionally and aggregated annually.

Case Study

The Heat Health Warning System of DWD - Concept and Lessons Learned

DWD

The HHWS was developed to reduce the heat related mortality. The HHWS is in operation since 2005 and preliminary studies indicate a reduction in the heat related mortality ever since.

Case Study

Vulnerability to heat stress: A case study of Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India

ASSAR

This study provided a pilot assessment of vulnerability to heat exposure in a rural context during the peak summer months of 2016, with a focus on indoor and outdoor temperatures.

Case Study

Where Do We Need Shade? Mapping Urban Heat Islands in Richmond, Virginia

U.S Climate Resilience Toolkit

Citizen-scientists took to the streets on specially equipped bikes and cars to find out where it’s hottest—and where residents might be most vulnerable to extreme urban heat.

Case Study

Tatabánya, Hungary, addressing the impacts of urban heat waves and forest fires with alert measures

Climate ADAPT | 2014

The City of Tatabánya has an approved comprehensive adaptation strategy, the Local Climate Change Action Plan, that is in its implementation stage. This Plan is based upon a comprehensive approach taking into consideration both mitigation and adaptation, incorporating climate considerations into decision-making, and including adaptation concerns in municipal processes. At this time, three measures have been implemented: (1) a local heat alert system; (2) the Smart Sun Educational Programme; and (3) building capacity of the fire brigade.

Case Study

Addressing heat-related health risks in urban India: Ahmedabad’s Heat Action Plan

CDKN | 2014

This report looks at how the local community of Ahmedabad in Western India is preparing for the increasingly extreme heat of the city.

Case Study

Bracing for Heat in Minnesota

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Heat waves bring some level of discomfort to nearly everyone. When excessive heat catches vulnerable populations off guard, though, discomfort can advance to illness and even death. Learn about strategies taken in Minnesota that help protect people in both rural and urban settings.

Case Study

Building Evidence That Effective Heat Alert Systems Save Lives In Southeast Australia

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In the January 2009 heatwave, a prototype heatwave alert system had just been introduced, based on research identifying a threshold temperature above which excess mortality occurred in Melbourne, Australia. By the time of the January 2014 heat wave, the heat alert system had been considerably refined, based on further scientific work (2–4) and intense interactions between climate scientists and public health authorities. The excess mortality associated with the 2014 heat wave was substantially lower than in 2009, even though the 2014 heat wave lasted longer.

Case Study

Catalyzing Investment and Building Capacity in Las Cruces

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Planning with extreme weather thresholds catalyzes a $400,000 green infrastructure investment in a historically underserved neighborhood in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

Case Study

Cctalk! Communicating Effectively With High-Risk Populations In Austria:
 A Five-Step Methodology

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In order to reduce the vulnerability of elderly people to heat waves in Austria, a new communication approach was developed and tested as part of the CcTalK! Project.

Case Study

Charting Colorado’s Vulnerability to Climate Change

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Responding to growing awareness of climate change impacts, the State of Colorado commissioned two of its universities to complete an initial study of the state’s vulnerabilities.

Case Study

Cincinnati's Urban Canopy Policy

Cincinnati created a dedicated funding stream for its urban forestry program in 1981 that has enabled the city to maintain
a high percentage of its tree canopy. Heat mitigation is a key reason tree canopy is a priority. Although Cincinnati has a temperate climate and harsh, cold winters, the urban heat island effect can make the city up to 17°F hotter than nearby
rural areas during the summer.

Case Study

Cool Neighborhoods NYC

NYC Mayor’sOffice of Resiliency

Cool Neighborhoods NYC is a strategy developed by the Mayor’s Office of Resiliency to provide and target additional funding and to coordinate multiple extreme heat mitigation and adaptation projects. The objective of Cool Neighborhoods NYC is to “help keep New Yorkers safe during hot weather, mitigate urban heat island effect drivers and protect against the worst impacts of rising temperatures from climate change.”

Case Study

Cool surfaces: roofs and roads

Los Angeles is the first U.S. city to set a citywide temperature reduction goal, and switching to cool surfaces is a key strategy for achieving that goal. Los Angeles’s goal is to reduce the urban heat island effect by 1.7°F by 2025 and average temperature 3°F by 2035, but the city is 40 percent covered by pavement. Los Angeles’s reflective paving program, which targets both rooftops and public streets, complements other UHI reduction programs including a Million Trees initiative and integrated planning with the Department of Health.

Case Study

Creating a Model Climate Resilient City

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

The City of Long Beach, California, sees signs of climate change on land and in the ocean. After compiling the City’s official climate assessment report, local stakeholders also produced a more accessible and user-friendly summary version and shared it broadly to stimulate informed discussion and decision making across the city.

Case Study

Deadly Chicago Heat Wave of 1995

AdaptNY | 2014

This AdaptNY case study of the Chicago heat wave of 1995 looks at how the urban heat island effect is exacerbated by socio-economic factors and poor city planning.

Case Study

Developing an Early Warning System to Prevent Heat Illness

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

Residents of the Carolinas are familiar with hot summers, but in some areas excessive heat events bring a higher risk for heat-related illness—and even death. A new tool can help local communities get ahead of heat events so they can reduce risk for their residents.

Case Study

Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance for Heat-Related Illness in Michigan with Improved Heat Syndrome Definition

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC)

With the goal to support the development of population heat resiliency and the capacity to withstand the effects of climate change, Michigan’s MDHHS and the CEC partnered to improve the MSSS to include a HRI-specific syndrome.

Case Study

Expanding Heat Resilience Across India

NRDC International | 2019

This issue brief highlights the progress at the city, state and national level in India in 2019 to improve climate resilience to extreme heat, and captures key elements of heat action plans.

Case Study

Expanding heat resilience across India: Heat Action Plan highlights

NRDC | 2020

Drawing lessons from the ground-breaking 2013 Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan,3 city, state, and national level authorities are ramping up to implement extreme heat warning systems and preparedness plans. In 2020, the national government is working with 23 states and over 100 cities and districts to develop and implement heat action plans across India.

Case Study

Finding The Right Thresholds To Trigger Action In Heat Wave Early Warning Systems In Spain

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

In Spain, the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET) has been successful in using weather prediction models to forecast short- and medium-range extreme temperatures, and an early warning system (Meteolerta) has been implemented in cooperation with European EUMETNET member countries (MeteoAlarm).

Case Study

Green Roof Bylaw and Eco-roof incentive in Toronto

City of Toronto

Toronto was the first city in North America to require and govern the construction of green roofs on new development. The Green Roof Bylaw (which includes a Green Roof Construction Standard) and the parallel Eco-Roof Incentive Program are responsible for more than 1.2 million square feet of new green space, an estimated reduction in citywide temperature, and widespread promotion of cool roofs.

Case Study

Heat Wave And Health Risk Early Warning Systems In China

World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | 2018

This project, which is part of a broader WHO/UNDP Global Environment Facility (GEF)-funded project, developed and implemented a heatwave early warning system to reduce the health risks and to increase the capacity of health systems and community residents to prepare for and cope with periods of extreme temperatures. The project was piloted in four cities: Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, located in different climate zones within China.

Case Study

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GHHIN

This case study provides an overview of the active heat health collaborations, projects and research ongoing in Hong Kong and presented during the First Global Forum on Heat and Health.

Hong Kong faces unique challenges from environmental hazards, such as climate change and variability, due to its densely populated and almost entirely urbanized living environment. An increased vulnerability to the urban heat island effect means that its inhabitants are more susceptible to the harmful, and sometimes deadly, health effects of extreme heat. This case study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary partners and agencies are collaborating to protect the most vulnerable communities.